How Does a CNC Router Work?
A CNC router uses computer software and a Computer Numerically Controlled system to drive a mechanical system. Most CNC machines can move and cut in three directions. These are referred to as the X, Y and Z axes.
X axis: the longest, running from front to back.
Y axis: running form left to right.
Z axis: running up and down.
CNC routers are very efficient, working simultaneously in all three directions, enabling them to produce complex shapes.
The Main Components of a CNC Router
The CNC Controller and Computer System. These work together to direct the motors and drive system in their movement. The computer is given a design which is initially in digital format. The computer software converts the design to a tool path code (usually G-code). These commands are then converted to a digital signal, relayed to the CNC controller which converts them to various currents and voltages to control the drive system.
The Spindle: This part of the machine is responsible for the cutting. The spindle rotates the cutting bit at various speeds, depending on what you are cutting. It will cut softer materials at a range of 8,000 to 24,000 revolutions per minute and metals at a range of 2000 and 10,000 RPMs.
The Cutting Bed: Whatever type of cutting bed you have, its function is the same. It is designed to secure and support the material you are cutting. The most common cutting bed is a vacuum bed which uses a vacuum motor to hold down your material as you cut. Another common cutting bed is one that has a T-slot design, which uses clamps and bolts to secure the workpiece to the bed.
The motor is the integral link between the system’s electronics and mechanics. The CNC controller provides the rotational power when needed. CNC routers may have stepper or servo motors. Steppers are the less expensive motor and are reliable. Servo motors have the advantage of having a closed loop system. This means, after receiving commands from the CNC controller, they will send back a signal indicating that their task is completed.
At SUDA, we aim to help you increase your company’s productivity and efficiency using high-quality machinery, hardware and software. Our expert team is committed to sharing our experience with you to help you take your enterprise to the next level. Contact us today to discuss our range of CNC routers